Detection of Novel t(12;17)(p12;p13) in Relapsed Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia by Anchored Multiplex PCR(AMP)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Although several technologies can be used to detect gene fusions, anchored multiplex PCR next-generation se- quencing (AMP-NGS) offers the advantage of novel fusion de- tection and the ability to multiplex multitudinous genes. We applied AMP-NGS technology in the evaluation of a 56-year- old gentleman with myelodysplastic syndrome transformed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patient was initially diagnosed with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome-refractory cytopenias and multilineage dysplasia (MDS-RCMD), progressed to AML after failing hypomethylating agent therapy. At progression patients had normal cytogenetics but NGS profiling showed ETV6 c.416_417del CT frame shift and U2AF1 S34F mutations. Patient attains brief remission of 2 months after induction chemotherapy and then he was refractory to 2 salvage chemo- therapy regimens. Reassessment after failing second salvage, identified t(12;17)(p13;p13)[20] by karyotype. It was postulated that the 12p13 locus might represent a new rearrangement of ETV6. AMP-NGS confirmed involvement of the ETV6 with discovery of a novel fusion partner, HIC1. The detection of the novel fusion partners was supported by the breakpoints origi- nally observed by karyotype. This discovery of ETV6-HIC1 gene fusion by AMP-NGS technology provided new insight into a leukemogenic pathway in AML. Future use of this technology can serve as an adjunct tool in workup of patients with AML and can also help in formulating therapeutic strategies.

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