A 3-year-old boy presented with pathologic fracture of the left proximal femur. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an aggressive expansile bony mass associated with cortical destruction and surrounding myositis. Computed tomography–guided biopsy revealed a monomorphic small round blue cell tumor by histology. CD99 immunoreactivity and low-level EWSR1 gene translocation by break-apart fluorescent in situ hybridization initially favored a diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma and chemotherapy commenced. Subsequent molecular evaluation by an anchored multiplex poly- merase chain reaction–based test (Archer® FusionPlex® Sarcoma Panel) revealed a nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) gene fusion. The diagnosis was then amended to primary bone ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma and the chemotherapy regimen was modified accordingly. This report illustrates the value of this molecular test in establishing the correct diagnosis of a very rare malignancy masquerading as another tumor type.