Role of next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a Diagnostic Tool for the Evaluation of Bone and Soft-Tissue Tumors.

Bone and soft-tissue tumors are in general rare. Diagnosing these tumors is challenging based on the significant number of different tumor entities, the rareness of these tumors, and the considerable morphological heterogeneity which can be found within a single tumor entity. Considering that more than half of the described soft-tissue tumors and approximately 25% of the bone tumors harbor recurrent genetic alterations, the use of auxiliary molecular examinations should be strongly considered. Molecular analyses are important to confirm the diagnosis, to guide treatment, to provide information about prognosis, and to allow patient recruitment for basket trials based on the molecular signature of a tumor. In addition, novel molecular alterations detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) obtain further insights into the pathogenesis of these rare tumors and allow a more detailed genetic classification. Based on our single-center results of NGS using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 and the Ion AmpliSeq Comprehensive Cancer Panel (Thermo Fisher Scientific) for mutational analyses as well as the Archer® FusionPlex®Sarcoma panel (ArcherDX, Inc) to detect gene fusions in 26 genes since early 2016, we have experienced NGS as a very sensitive method to detect genetic alterations. In our experience, the use of the Archer® FusionPlex®Sarcoma panel is superior to fluorescent in situ hybridization as an auxiliary tool in the routine workup of soft-tissue and bone tumor.

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